Air Pollution in Delhi, the Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 levels in 2020-21

Air Pollution in Delhi, the Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 levels in 2020-21

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, FOREST AND CLIMATE CHANGE

RAJYA SABHA 

UNSTARRED QUESTION No. 2919
TO BE ANSWERED ON 22.03.2021

Levels of PM 2.5 in Delhi

2919. SHRI NARANBHAI J. RATHWA

Will the Minister of ENVIRONMENT, FOREST AND CLIMATE CHANGE be pleased to state:

(a) whether it is a fact that according to analysis of air pollution in Delhi, the Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 levels in 2020-21 were worse than the previous years,

(b) if so, the complete details thereof;

(c) whether it is also a fact that according to various studies conducted, the key pollutants are a combination of chromium-nickel-manganese, copper-cadmium-lead, lead-tin- selenium and chlorine-barium-selenium which are very harmful for human health, and

(d) if so, the steps Government proposes to combat the menace of air pollution in Delhi permanently?

Air Pollution in Delhi
ANSWER
MINISTER OF STATE IN THE MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT,
FOREST AND CLIMATE CHANGE

(SHRI BABUL SUPRIYO)

(a) and (b) The annual average of PM10 and PM2.5 for the years 2018-2020 of Delhi is enclosed at Annexure I. The analysis of data reveals that both PM10 and PM2.5 shows a reducing trend in the last three years.

(c) Several studies have been conducted to identify major air pollution sources and their contributions to ambient air pollution levels. However, there is no study which reports combination of chromium-nickel-manganese, copper-cadmium-lead, lead-tin-selenium and chloride-barium-selenium as key pollutants.

(d) Government has taken several steps for mitigation of air pollution in Delhi-NCR such as introduction of BS-VI, expansion of Metro, operationalization of Eastern and Western peripheral expressways, shifting of industries to PNG, waste processing plants, online round the clock monitoring of red category industries, etc. The details of initiatives taken by government to combat air pollution in Delhi-NCR region is at Annexure -II.

While the Government is making concerted efforts to mitigate air pollution, the citizens should also extend support for the following activities such as:

  • Renew your Pollution Under Control Certificate timely.
  • Avoid idling of engines.
  • Plan your errands to reduce travel time and trips.
  • Adopt clean modes of transport.
  • Prefer cycles/ e-bikes for short trips.
  • Adopt public transportation wherever feasible.
  • Avoid Congested routes.
  • Segregate household waste
  • Never burn waste
  • Take recyclable waste to collection centres & earn from waste too
  • Compost leaves and garden waste
  • Avoid vigorous sweeping of leaves in gardens/ parks – use wide rakes
  • Dispose e-waste responsibly.
  • Adopt green good deeds and encourage others too.
  • Use public grievance redressal apps to inform air polluting activities to authorities
  • Share about ongoing clean initiatives with others.

Annexure – I

Ambient air quality status of Delhi (2018-2020)

Year

Annual average in µg/m3

PM 2.5

PM10

2018

115

243

2019

109

218

2020

95

181


Annexure
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES TO COMBAT AIR POLLUTION IN DELHI- NCR

1. ACTIONS TO CONTROL VEHICLE POLLUTION Introduction of BS-IV and BS-VI Fuel and Emission Norms
  • BS IV fuel and vehicle emission norms were introduced in April 2017 in the entire country. BS VI fuel was introduced in Delhi from April 2018, in NCR from October 2019 and in entire country by April 2020.
  • 80% reduction in Particulate Matter emissions and 30% reduction in Nitrogen Oxides emissions in BS IV heavy duty diesel vehicles compared with BS III norms.
  • Leapfrogging to BS VI norms is likely to reduce 50% Particulate Matter emissions and 88.5% Nitrogen Oxide emissions in comparison to BS IV norms. Improvement also in other pollutants and type of vehicles.
  • Nearly ₹60,000 Cr were spent on switching over to BS VI fuels.
Eastern and Western Peripheral Expressways (EPE and WPE)
  • EPE and WPE work completed at cost of about ₹17000 Cr and opened for public in May 2018 and November 2018, respectively.
  • 30000 to 40000 good vehicles not destined for Delhi are diverted away from national capital due to WPE and EPE. This helps in reduction traffic congestion and pollution caused due to non-destined vehicles which earlier used to pass through Delhi.
Implementation of RFID system at all 13 entry points of Delhi
  • RFID (radio-frequency identity) system implemented by South Delhi Municipal Corporation (SDMC) for collection of toll and Environment Compensation Charges from commercial vehicles entering Delhi.
  • Cost ₹120 Cr for over the period of next five years (Design, Built, Finance, Operate and Transfer) basis.
  • Strict enforcement of Environmental Compensation Charges on Delhi-bound trucks helps in control on numbers, including enforcement to check and divert all non-Delhi bound truck traffic and age limit (as stipulated by Hon’ble Supreme Court).
 Motor Vehicle Act 2019: Increase in penalty for violation of PUC norms
  • With recent amendment in the Motor Vehicle Act and increase in fine from ₹1000/- to ₹10000/- for not having PUC certificate, compliance has increased. Due to this, average number of daily PUC certificates issued has increased from 10,000-12,000 to 40000- 45000.
  • PUC norms compliance and traffic discipline will help in reduction in vehicular pollution in Delhi-NCR, which has a major contribution to pollution levels in Delhi-NCR.
  • Installation of Vapour Recovery Systems in more than 3000 petrol pumps in NCR is under implementation.
Delhi Metro Network Augmentation
  • Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) network now covers about 389 Km with 285 stations, reaching Delhi-Noida-Greater Noida-Ghaziabad in UP and Gurgaon to Ballabhgarh in Haryana. It today has over 300 train sets of four, six and eight coaches.
  • Metro network expansion plays an important role in pollution reduction in Delhi-NCR as it shifts more and more private vehicles user to public transport, thus, minimizing use of individual cars as well as by reducing traffic congestion.
  • Environmental friendly Metro at cost of more than ₹70,000 Cr is used by over 30 lakhs people every day and because of this, 4,00,000 vehicles are avoided on roads, thereby, reducing pollution.
E-mobility Initiatives
  • Department of Heavy Industry is providing subsidy on e-vehicles under Faster Adoption and Manufacture of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India (FAME India) scheme. Commencing from 1st April 2019, Phase-II of FAME Scheme has been approved with an outlay of Rs. 10,000 Crore for a period of 3 years. 48145 electric vehicles have been sold in the country under FAME-II scheme.
  • Setting up of public charging stations (PCS) had been de-licensed and any individual/entity is free to set up PCS. EESL has installed more than 70 Public charging stations in Delhi NCR.
  • States advised to exempt road tax on e-vehicles thereby reducing cost of purchase of eco- friendly vehicles.
2. ACTIONS TO CONTROL ROAD AND CONSTRUCTION & DEMOLITION DUST
  • Construction & Demolition (C & D) Waste Management Rules were notified in 2016.
3. ACTIONS FOR C&D WASTE PROCESSING IN DELHI
  • 03 C & D Waste Processing Plants (Jahangirpuri, Shastri Park and Ranikhera) with total capacity of 2650 TPD are operational in Delhi.
  • 04 new plants (Baba Hardisnagar, Siraspur, New Ranikhera, Bakkarwala) are being established to increase the processing capacity by 3000TPD.
  • At present, 57 lakh MT C&D waste is being processed, with an off-take of 8,83,028 MT.
  • 76 mechanized road sweeping machines (number of machines as in September 2019: Delhi - 60, Ghaziabad - 06, Greater Noida - 06, Noida – 04) and 502 water sprinklers to various municipal corporations with support ₹280 Cr.
4. ACTIONS TO CONTROL INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS

Thermal Power Plants
  • Closure of Badarpur Thermal Plant of NTPC led to estimated reduction of 8 tons of particulate matter, 44.7 tons of Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and 128.4 tons of Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emissions per day
  • Implementation of new emission norms in thermal power plants will lead to reduction in emission of particulate matter by 92 tons, Sulphur dioxide (SO2) by 898tons and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) by 474 tons per day in NCR Delhi.
  • SO2 and NOx standards for industrial boilers and Five Industrial Sectors (Ceramic, Foundry, Glass, Lime Kiln & Reheating Furnace) introduced. Out of 1511 operational industries in these sectors in Delhi-NCR, 1388 units have reported compliance with the norms.
  • It is estimated that ban on use of petcoke in NCR has led to 48% reduction in total PM emission as compared to using Furnace Oil.
  • Out of 5147 industrial units in Delhi NCR,3074 have shifted to PNG.
  • Out of 621 Red Category Air Polluting Units in Delhi NCR, OCEMS have been installed and connected to CPCB server by 563 units.
  • So far2783 Brick kilns in NCR have converted to Zig-Zag technology. (30 – 40% reduction)
5. ACTIONS FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
  • Solid Waste Management Rules have been revamped in 2016
  • Out of 10470 TPD municipal solid waste generated in Delhi, about 10466 TPD waste is being collected, 5193 TPD is being treated and 5276 TPD waste is being Landfilled.
  • More than 5000 TPD Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is treated at 03 waste to energy (59 MW) plants located in Ghazipur (1300TPD, 12 MW), Okhla (1950 TPD, 23MW) and Bawana (2000TPD, 24MW).
  • 18 compost plants and 9 Bio-methanation plants are operations in Delhi is operational. For treating remaining waste, following actions have been taken by Municipal Corporation of Delhi
  • An integrated waste processing plant to generate 12MW of Power and process 2000 TPD waste is proposed at Ghonda Gujran through Joint Venture by EDMC with NTPC.
  • Waste to Energy plant at Tehkhand for 2000 TPD MSW has been awarded and project is targeted to be completed by December, 2021.
  • 100 TPD Bio methanationplant for treating cattle dung at Ghazipurhas been awarded (EDMC)
  • Bio mining of three dumpsites at Bhalsawa, Okhla and Ghazipur. Work for bio mining has been initiated at these three sites.
6. MEASURES TO CONTROL OF STUBBLE BURNING
  • In- situ Management of Crop Residue: A Central sector scheme launched by Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare in 2018, ‘Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization for in-situ Management of Crop Residue in Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and NCT of Delhi’ to address air pollution due to stubble burning. The Scheme has been approved for continuation during 2020-21 with an outlay of Rs. 600 crores.
  • 70,449 machines have been distributed so far along with establishment of28, 907 Custom Hiring Centres (CHCs) in Punjab, Haryana, U. P. and Delhi
  • In terms of Active Fire Events, stubble burning incidents has reduced by 25% (1652 AFEs) in comparison to 2019 in Haryana.
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