Child Mortality Rate in India under five years of age

Child Mortality Rate in India under five years of age

 GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE

LOK SABHA 

UNSTARRED QUESTION NO. 882
TO BE ANSWERED ON 5TH FEBRUARY, 2021

CHILD MORTALITY RATE

882.    SHRI DILIP SAIKIA
           SHRI RAMESH CHANDER KAUSHIK

Will the Minister of HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE be pleased to state:

(a) whether it is a fact that mortality rate in children under five years of age in rural areas is 2.4 times higher than the urban children in the country, if so, the details thereof, State/UT-wise including Assam;

(b) the strategy chalked out by the Government to tackle this situation;

(c) whether the Government has fixed any accountability at any level in this regard; and

CHILD MORTALITY RATE

(d) if so, the details thereof and if not, the reasons therefor?

ANSWER
THE MINISTER OF STATE IN THE MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE

(SHRI ASHWINI KUMAR CHOUBEY)

(a) & (b): As per Sample Registration System (SRS) Statistical Report of Registrar General of India (2018), mortality rate in children under five years of age (Under 5 Mortality Rate) in rural India is 40 per 1000 live births and in urban India it is 24 per 1000 live births. The overall Under 5 Mortality Rate is 36 per 1000 live birth at national level in 2018.

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The differential Under 5 Mortality Rate in Rural and urban areas varies from state to state. The details of Under 5 Mortality Rate in larger States/ UTs including Assam covered under SRS is placed at Annexure.

In order to bring down the mortality among children, the Government of India is supporting all States/UTs including North-Eastern States under National Health Mission in implementation of Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child, Adolescent health and Nutrition (RMNCAH+N) strategies. The major interventions include the following:

  • In order to improve pregnancy outcome and reduce newborn/ child mortality due to home delivery, Institutional deliveries are promoted under Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) through cash incentive. Women delivering in public health institutions are entitled for free delivery including Caesarean section, post-natal care under Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (JSSK). Treatment of sick infants up to one year of age is also covered under JSSK.
  • Sick Newborn Care Units (SNCU) are established at District Hospital and Medical College level, Newborn Stabilization Units (NBSU) are established at First Referral Units (FRUs)/ Community Health Centres (CHC) for care of sick and small babies. India Newborn Action Plan (INAP) was launched in 2014 to make concerted efforts to reduce neonatal mortality.
  • Under Home Based Newborn Care (HBNC) and Home-Based Care of Young Children (HBYC) program, home visits are performed by ASHAs to improve child rearing practices and to identify sick new-born and young children in the community.
  • Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding for first six months and appropriate Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices are promoted under Mothers' Absolute Affection (MAA).
  • Social Awareness and Actions to Neutralize Pneumonia Successfully (SAANS) initiative has been launched for reduction of Childhood morbidity and mortality due to Pneumonia.
  • Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is being supported to provide vaccination to children against life threatening diseases such as Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Polio, Tetanus, Hepatitis B, Measles, Rubella, Pneumonia and Meningitis caused by Haemophilus Influenzae B. The Rotavirus vaccination has also been rolled out in the country for prevention of Rota-viral diarrhoea.
  • Children from 0 to 18 years of age are screened for 30 health conditions (i.e. Diseases, Deficiencies, Defects and Developmental delay) under “Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakaram” (RBSK) to improve child survival. District early intervention center (DEIC) at district health facility level are established for confirmation and management of children screened under RBSK.
  • Nutrition Rehabilitation Centres (NRCs) have been set up at public health facilities to treat and manage the children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) admitted with medical complications.
  • Intensified Diarrhoea Control Fortnight / Defeat Diarrhoea (D2) initiative has been launched for promoting ORS and Zinc use and for reducing diarrhoeal deaths.
  • Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) strategy as a part of Poshan Abhiyan aims to strengthen the existing mechanisms and foster newer strategies to tackle anaemia which include testing & treatment of anaemia in school going adolescents & pregnant women, addressing non nutritional causes of anaemia and a comprehensive communication strategy.
  • Name based tracking of mothers and children till two years of age is done through RCH portal to ensure complete  antenatal, intranatal, postnatal care  and immunization as per schedule.
  • Several capacity building programs of health care providers are undertaken for improving maternal and child survival and health outcomes.

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(c) & (d): Health being a State subject, the day to day monitoring and reporting lies in the domain of State/ UT governments. To strengthen public health system, under National Health Mission (NHM) technical and financial support is provided for establishment of monitoring mechanisms and grievance redressal system. Besides this, routine monitoring through Health Management Information System (HMIS) and periodic monitoring through state reviews are also carried out. Regular advisories/ guidance are issued to States/ UTs in this regard.

 Annexure I

Status of Under 5 Mortality Rate at National level and Larger States/ UTs in 2018

Total

Rural

Urban

India

36

40

26

Andhra Pradesh

33

37

24

Assam

47

50

23

Bihar

37

37

32

Chhattisgarh

45

47

38

Delhi

19

17

19

Gujarat

31

37

21

Haryana

36

39

30

Himachal Pradesh

23

23

17

Jammu & Kashmir

23

24

20

Jharkhand

34

36

29

Karnataka

28

30

24

Kerala

10

11

9

Madhya Pradesh

56

60

39

Maharashtra

22

27

15

Orissa

44

45

35

Punjab

23

23

22

Rajasthan

40

43

31

Tamil Nadu

17

22

14

Telangana

30

35

23

Uttar Pradesh

47

49

38

Uttarakhand

33

33

33

West Bengal

26

27

25

Source: Sample Registration System, Registrar General of India


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