CBSE : Infrastructure needed for Physics Laboratory

Essential Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)
Required for Affiliation with CBSE

Physics Laboratory

CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

1. Introduction

Laboratories aim to create opportunities to provide students with hands-on experience of laboratory experiments, which could bridge the gap between theoretical concepts and their application in everyday life. The laboratory performance is based on the idea that science focuses on hands-on, minds-on observational activities and that these activities help students make connections between various scientific concepts and real-life experiences. If students are to make use of any technology/ scientific skills in their classrooms, they must learn to make observations, formulate hypotheses, conduct experiments, collect data, use appropriate tools, analyse the data and interpret the obtained results. The practicals enable students to connect to other science areas, communicate the information effectively, and argue their conclusions logically. Students can learn these skills if they can participate in various laboratory exercises.

In the study of Physics, practicals are given special consideration as they are necessary to stimulate creativity, curiosity and critical thinking among students. Moreover, practicals help increase students' engagement, thus boosting their interest in the subject. School labs are an excellent place for students which help them enhance their learning by understanding the theoretical concepts of science taught in classrooms. Well- designed laboratories make science experiments fun and help students achieve good academic results. It helps to close the gap in the achievement of learning outcomes, and classroom transactions will shift towards competency-based learning and education. Hence, a well-equipped Science Laboratory is required in every school to:

  • Make learning Holistic, Integrated, Enjoyable, and Engaging
  • Develop conceptual understanding giving a strong emphasis on Experiential learning in all stages of science education to move toward Competency-focussed education.
  • Provide opportunities to students for hands-on learning to observe, experiment and innovate
  • Fulfill curricular expectations in a holistic manner
  • Create and facilitate a culture of research from the school level itself
  • Promote collaborative learning.

As  per  the  NCERT  Learning  Outcomes  at  Senior  Secondary  Stage,  at  this  stage  Learners  are expected to:

  • develop interest to study physics as a discipline;
  • strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to acquire firm ground work and foundation for further learning of Physics more effectively and learning the relationship with real life situations;
  • apply reasoning to develop conceptual understanding of Physics concepts;
  • realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines
  • get exposure to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications;
  • develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative,    decision-making and investigatory skills;
  • synthesize various science/physics concepts to solve problems and thinking critically in the process of learning Physics;
  • understand the relationship between nature and matter on scientific basis, develop positive scientific attitude, and appreciate the contribution of Physics towards the improvement of quality of life and human welfare;
  • comprehend the contemporary knowledge and develop aesthetic sensibilities.
  • appreciate the role and impact of Physics and technology, and their linkages with
  • overall national development.
  • Chapter 4 of NEP 2020 ‘Curriculum and Pedagogy in Schools: Learning Should be Holistic, Integrated, Enjoyable, and Engaging’ has laid a wide emphasis on Experiential learning in all stages of science education in Para 4.6.
  • Chapter 7 of NEP 2020 in Para 7.5 has mentioned the importance of well-equipped science laboratories for strong science education.
  • According to Para 12.1 Effective learning requires a comprehensive approach that involves appropriate curriculum, engaging pedagogy, continuous formative assessment, and adequate student support. The curriculum must be interesting and relevant, and updated regularly to align with the latest knowledge requirements and to meet specified learning outcomes which can be made possible by well-equipped science laboratories.

To align with the recommendations of NEP and for the convenience and clarity of all stakeholders, CBSE has prepared SOPs for laying down the requirements for Physics Laboratory in schools. The present SOP also illustrate adequately the safety rules for students and instructions for teachers in this regard. The SOP also attempt to sensitize schools about proper management of waste generated during the practical exercise carried out by the students. It is hoped that the SOPs will be helpful for schools and students in adopting basic rules for safe behaviour and hygiene, to avoid accidents in the laboratory.

4. Model Layout of Physics Laboratory

Physics Laboratory

5. Infrastructure needed for Physics Laboratory:

Recommendations for Infrastructure

S. No.

Category / Materials needed

Requirements

1

Physical Infrastructure

Minimum Lab. Room size 600 Sq.ft.

2

Storage

A separate room or cupboards within lab for consumables and non- consumables items in the lock and key mechanism, thus ensuring a safety, dust and vermin-free environment.

3

Teaching facility

Preferably an intelligent board with an internet Facility or white / green board.

4

Demonstration Table

The demonstration table should also have a sink along with a water tap. In the laboratory, seats are made available to the students, so students sit at the allotted place and note the instructionsfrom the teacher.

40 seating facilities (lab stools)

5

Display / Notice Board

Do’s & Don’ts/ rules for the laboratory use/ safety procedures

List of practical activities

Timetable- (laboratory timetable)

Emergency Contact numbers

6

Gas/ heating

Preferably gas pipeline. (2 heating burners)

7

Sink with Water supply

8 sinks with water supply

8

Waste management

02 bins to be installed for biodegradable and non - biodegradable waste.

Flammable chemicals bottles must be packed separately. Empty chemical bottles can be packed incartons/sacks. Disposal must be sent to the Material Management Division of the school.

9

Fire extinguisher

To be installed at a prominent place within the laboratory or in the corridor outside the laboratory.

10

Exhaust fans

2 in number

11

Medical First Aid Kit

2 in number

12

Heating facility

One Heater should be available in the lab to conduct Heat related experiments

6. Minimum requirement of equipment / items for a Physics laboratory

a) List of Non-Consumable Items (for a batch of 40 students):

S. No

Materials Required

Requirement

S. No

Materials Required

Requirement

1

Ammeters different range

10

27

Rheostat

10

2

Battery eliminator

10

28

Resistance coil different range 1-5 ohms)

20

3

Daniell cell

8

29

Resonance apparatus

8

4

Drawing board

30

30

Spherometer

30

5

Friction apparatus complete set with weight box

8

31

Screw gauge

20

6

Galvanometer

10

32

Wooden scale (1-50 cm, 1-100 cm)

10 each

7

Parallelogram apparatus

10

33

Stopwatch

8

8

Key one way

20

34

Sonometer

8

9

Jockey pencil type

10

35

Sprit level

4

10

Two-way key

8

36

Thermometer

10

11

Laclanche cell

8

37

Tuning fork (250

Hz, 480 Hz and 512 Hz) withpad

5 each

12

Meter bridge

8

38

Vernier calliper

20

13

Multimeter digital

4

39

Voltmeter (different range)

20

14

Multimeter manual

4

40

Beakers

10

15

Magnetic compass

10

41

Connecting wires

1 Kg

16

Optical bench (1 meter long

10

42

Charts for display (bio visuals)

20

17

Prism (Indian glass)

30

43

Portraits (as per choice)

20

18

Potentiometer

8

44

Concave mirror

10

19

Plier

5

45

Convex mirror

10

20

Cutter

5

46

Convex lens

10

21

Screwdriver

5

47

Concave lens

10

22

Scissor

5

48

Wedge knife edge (for sonometer)

10

23

Resistance box (different range 0.1 to 10 ohm)

  • 1 to 10 ohms
  • 1 to 100 ohms

· 1 to 1000 ohms

· 1 to 100000 ohms

5 each

49

Glass slab

30

24

Dry cell 10g (chargeable)

10

50

Pendulum box

20

25

Dry cell charger

8

51

Cork rubber 1.5 inches

20

26

Helical spring apparatus with weights

8

52

Hanger weights 500 gm

8 set

S. No.

Materials Required

Requirement

S. No.

Materials Required

Requirement

53

Insulated copper wire

500 gm

71

Laptop/ desktop set

2 setup

54

Meter tape (1-100 meter)

4 roll

72

Balance ( Physical )

2

55

Soldering iron

4

73

Boyle’s law apparatus

2

56

Spring balance (0-250 gm)

10

74

Fortnis Barometer

2

57

U-shaped magnet

5

75

Metallic Cylinders

2

58

Copper calorimeter

2

76

Metal Sphere

2

59

Epidiascope

2

77

SG Bottles

2

60

Newton’s Disc

2

78

Grave sand apparatus

2

61

Telescope

2

79

Young’s Modulus

2

62

Camera

2

80

Spectrometer

2

63

Barometer tube

2

81

Hydrometer

2

64

Lactometer

2

82

Spirit Level

2

65

Stove (Oil)

2

83

Potentiometer

2

66

Electric bell

2

84

Silk and cat skin pieces

2

67

Proof Plane

2

85

Gold leaf electroscope

2

68

Binoculars

2

86

Tuning fork

2

69

Soldering rods

2

70

P-N junction diode set up

4

b) List of Consumable Items (for a batch of 40 students at any given time):

S. No.

Equipment

Requirement

1

Ammonium Chloride`

500 gm

2

All Pins 1.5 “

2 Packets

3

Copper Sulphate

500 gm

4

Drawing Pins

6 Packets

5

Thread Rolls

1 Roll

7.   Safety guidelines

In   order   to   ensure   the   safety  of   students   in   Science   Laboratories,   the   following   provisions   are mandatory:

List of general SOP applicable at all times

  • Two wide doors for unobstructed exits from the laboratory.
  • An adequate number of fire extinguishers near laboratory.
  • Periodically checking vulnerable points in the laboratory about the possibility of mishaps.
  • It should be ensured that gas fittings in the laboratory fulfill the desired norms and standards.
  • Periodical checking of electrical fittings/ insulations for replacement and repairs
  • Timely and repeated instructions to students for carefully handling equipment in the laboratory.
  • Display of do’s and don’ts in the laboratory at prominent places.
  • Safe and secure storage of all equipments.
  • Proper labelling and upkeep of equipments/items.
  • Proper  safety  and  protection  provisions  include  a  fume  hood,  goggles  and  gloves  while doing practical work.
  • Careful supervision of students while doing practical work.
  • Advance precautionary arrangements to meet any emergencies.
  • Conduct   any  additional  experimental   work  only  under   supervision   and   with  due  advance permission.
  • Availability of First Aid and basic medical facilities in the school.
  • Proper location of the laboratories.

General work procedure for students

  • When entering a laboratory, avoid touching equipment, chemicals, electrical and electronic devices, or other materials until you are instructed to do so.
  • The students should be careful when doing electricity experiments.
  • He/she  should  not  touch  any  wires  if  his/her  hands  are  wet,  even  for  low  voltage equipment.
  • Do not start any practical work unless you are clear about its directions. Ask your teacher before proceeding with the activity.
  • Be  cautious  at  all times  in  the laboratory. Call  the  teacher  immediately if  you notice any risky conditions.
  • Never work alone in the laboratory. The presence of a teacher or supervisor is necessary.
  • In case of spillage, breakage or injury, report to the teacher instantly: stay calm.
  • When removing an electrical plug from its socket, switch off and grasp the plug, not the electrical cord. Hands must be dry when touching an electrical switch, plug or outlet/ socket.
  • Never return unused chemicals to their original container.
  • Do not immerse hot glassware in cold water, as the glassware may break. Put the heated glassware in a different place to be cooled.
  • Never look into a container that is being heated. Always observe containers from sideways.
  • If the Bunsen burner goes out accidentally, immediately turn off the control device/ gas supply.
  • Never leave a lit burner unattended.
  • Wash your hands with liquid soap and water on leaving the laboratory.

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