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Air Pollution Air quality status of million plus cities for 2015, 2016 and 2017

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, FOREST AND CLIMATE CHANGE 

LOK SABHA 

STARRED QUESTION N0. 65 
TO BE ANSWERED ON 14.12.2018 

Air Pollution 

65. SHRI K.N. RAMACHANDRAN: SHRI FEROZE VARUN GANDHI: 

Will the Minister of ENVIRONMENT, FOREST AND CLIMATE CHANGE be pleased to state: 
  • (a) whether the level of pollution in the country is increasing more rapidly than that of other countries and the annual average of parameters of air pollution has reached/crossed the alarming level in major cities of the country including Delhi and Bengaluru causing major problems, if so, the details thereof, State and city-wise along with the reasons therefor and the reaction of the Government thereto; 
  • (b) whether as per the World Health Organization (WHO) report, fourteen of the most polluted twenty cities of the world are in India, if so, the details thereof and the reaction of the Government thereto;
  • (c) whether the Government has conducted any study to verify WHO’s claim and determine the major causes for higher pollution in the country including the National Capital Region, Delhi and if so, the details and the findings thereof; 
  • (d) whether the Government has launched/proposes to launch any new scheme/long term policy and employ modern techniques to make Delhi and other parts of the country pollution free and if so, the details thereof; and 
  • (e) the measures taken/being taken by the Government to check/control the increasing level of pollution and improve the air quality along with the funds provided for the purpose during each of the last three years and the current year, State/UT-wise? 
Air+Pollution
A N S WE R 

MINISTER OF STATE 
IN THE MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, FOREST AND CLIMATE CHANGE 
(DR. MAHESH SHARMA) 

(a) to (e): A Statement is laid on the Table of the House. 

Statement referred to in reply to Lok Sabha Starred Question No. 65 due for reply on 14.12.2018 regarding ‘Air Pollution’ By Shri K.N. Ramachandran and Shri Feroze Varun Gandhi, Hon'ble Members of Lok Sabha 

(a) Ambient air quality is being monitored at 731 locations covering 312 cities/towns in 29 States and 6 Union Territories across the country under National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP).The ambient air quality data for million plus cities including Delhi and Bengaluru is attached at Annexure-I. Analysis of data shows that SO2 levels were within the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in all 43 cities during 2015-17. With respect to NO2, 14 cities showed an increasing trend, 14 cities showed a decreasing concentration, 14 cities showed a fluctuating trend and 1 city revealed steady concentration. With respect to PM10, 14 cities showed an increasing trend, 8 cities showed a decreasing concentration, 21 cities showed a fluctuating trend. With respect to PM2.5, trends are available for 15 cities and out of 15 cities, 05 cities showed an increasing trend, 04 cities showed a decreasing concentration, 06 cities showed a fluctuating trend. 

(b) & (c) The World Health Organization (WHO) released the WHO Global Ambient Air Quality Database (update 2018) which consists of mainly annual means for PM10 and/or PM2.5, covering more than 4000 human settlements in 108 countries for the years 2008 to 2016. 14 cities of India namely Kanpur, Faridabad, Gaya, Varanasi, Patna, Delhi, Lucknow, Agra, Gurgaon, Muzaffarpur, Srinagar, Jaipur, Patiala & Jodhpur are included in the list of 20 cities which have recorded high levels of PM2.5. These cities in WHO Database do not report pollution on all parameters. Studies have been conducted to identify major air pollution sources (mainly NOX, PM10 and PM2.5) and their contributions to ambient air pollution. Major air pollution sources include road dust suspension, vehicles, garbage burning, construction, DG sets, industries, etc. are. Details of these studies are given in Annexure II. 

(d) The Central Government has notified a Comprehensive Action Plan (CAP) for prevention, control and mitigation of air pollution in Delhi and NCR. The Central Government has also finalized National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) under the Central Sector “Control of Pollution” Scheme as a long-term time bound national level strategy to tackle the increasing air pollution problem across the country in comprehensive manner. The overall objective is to augment and evolve effective ambient air quality monitoring network across the country besides ensuring comprehensive management plan for prevention, control and abatement of air pollution. The NCAP focuses on collaborative and participatory approach comprising all sources of pollution and coordination between relevant Central Ministries, State Governments, local bodies and other stakeholders. Hundred and two (102) non- attainment cities have been selected for formulation and implementation of city specific action plan under NCAP. In addition, NCAP has many peripheral components viz. Technical Assessment Cell, technology support, sharing of international best practices, awareness and capacity building, source apportionment studies, plantation drive, intensive inspection drive etc to support the time bound implementation of NCAP. 

New/ innovative technologies are being employed for mitigation of air pollution. So far, three pilot projects have been initiated in Delhi under Environment Protection Charge (EPC) fund- (i)To assess the effectiveness of 

“Pariyayantra”filtration units deployed in buses, (ii) Evaluation of Wind Augmentation Purifying Units (WAYUs) at traffic intersections for pollution abatement in Delhi and (iii) Control of dust emission at test sites to arrest construction/road dust using dust suppressant. 

(e) The measures taken/being taken by the Government to check/control the increasing level of pollution and improve the air quality inter alia, include notification of Graded Response Action Plan for different levels of air pollution in Delhi and NCR; notification of National Ambient Air Quality Standards; setting up of monitoring network for assessment of ambient air quality; introduction of cleaner / alternate fuels like gaseous fuel (CNG, LPG etc.), ethanol blending, launching of National Air Quality index; universalization of BS-IV from 2017; leapfrogging from BS-IV to BS- VI fuel standards since 1st April, 2018 in NCT of Delhi and from by 1st April, 2020 in the rest of thecountry; notification of Construction and Demolition Waste Management Rules; banning of burning of biomass; notifications regarding ‘Mandatory Implementation of Dust Mitigation Measures for Construction and Demolition Activities for projects requiring EC’ and ‘Mandatory Implementation of Dust Mitigation Measures for all Construction and Demolition Activities’; notification of Construction and Demolition Waste Management Rules; promotion of public transport network; streamlining the issuance of Pollution Under Control Certificate; issuance of directions under Section 18(1)(b) of Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 and under Section 5 of Environment (Protection) Act, etc.State-wise details of funds released to various Monitoring Agencies during last three and current years for ambient air quality monitoring as operational and maintenance cost under National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP) is given at Annexure-III. 

Annexures referred to in reply to Lok Sabha Starred Question No. 65 due for reply on 14.12.2018 regarding ‘Air Pollution’ By Shri K.N. Ramachandran and Shri Feroze Varun Gandhi, Hon'ble Members of Lok Sabha 

Annexure I 
Air quality status of million plus cities for 2015, 2016 and 2017 

(Annual average in µg/m3)
Sl.
No.

State

Cities
2015
2016
2017
SO 2 NO 2 PM 10 PM 2.5 SO 2 NO 2 PM 10 PM 2.5 SO 2 NO 2 PM 10 PM 2.5
1. Uttar Pradesh Agra
4
22
186
-
5
22
198
-
4
19
185 124
2. Gujarat Ahmedabad
13
21
89
29
14
27
108
34
14
29
120
38
3. Uttar Pradesh Allahabad
4
26
250
-
4
37
196
-
4
40
140
4. Punjab Amritsar
11
30
148
-
12
29
194
-
11
27
168
-
5. Maharashtra Aurangabad
13
40
83
-
14
39
92
-
10
33
83
-
Sl.
No.
State
Cities
2015
2016
2017
SO 2 NO 2 PM 10 PM 2.5 SO 2 NO 2 PM 10 PM 2.5 SO 2 NO 2 PM 10 PM 2.5
6. Karnataka Bangaluru
6
20
119
54
3
31
103
51
2
31
92
46
7. Madhya Pradesh Bhopal
3
23
158 105
3
15
89
27
4
15
93
41
8. Tamilnadu Chennai
13
20
59
22
10
18
65
25
9
17
62
32
9. Tamilnadu Coimbatore
4
25
47
30
6
24
59
35
5
26
49
34
10. Delhi Delhi
5
65
220
95
7
66
278 118
7
68
241 106
11. Jharkhand Dhanbad
12
37
168
-
15
37
226
-
15
37
238
-
12. Maharashtra Dombivali/Amber nath
20
53
104
-
26
76
128
-
27
70
176
-
13. Haryana Faridabad
15
74
105
56
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
14. Uttar Pradesh Ghaziabad
23
37
260
-
15
28
235
-
22
34
280
-
15. Madhya Pradesh Gwalior
10
14
125
77
10
14
96
52
10
17
110
47
16. West Bengal Howrah
15
43
123
73
10
59
119
67
11
63
110
64
17. Telangana Hydrabad
4
23
93
-
4
27
100
49
6
28
108
54
18. Madhya Pradesh Indore
11
20
97
-
11
20
95
54
11
21
80
43
19. Madhya Pradesh Jabalpur
9
28
90
40
10
23
71
32
10
21
74
23
20. Rajasthan Jaipur
7
36
171
-
8
33
199
-
8
30
177
-
21. Rajasthan Jodhpur
6
24
152
-
6
23
168
-
6
21
180
-
22. Uttar Pradesh Kanpur
6
36
201
-
7
39
217
-
7
45
224
-
23. West Bengal Kolkata
7
56
105
55
4
49
113
70
6
41
120
71
24. Rajasthan Kota
6
34
134
-
7
30
109
-
8
28
130
-
25. Uttar Pradesh Lucknow
8
28
169
-
8
27
214
-
8
26
246 102
26. Punjab Ludhiana
11
27
139
-
11
25
139
-
10
28
162
-
27. Tamilnadu Madurai
13
25
64
32
15
24
76
38
14
23
67
30
28. Uttar Pradesh Meerut
6
39
144
-
7
55
157
-
7
52
153
-
29. Maharashtra Mumbai
4
25
106
26
6
30
119
20
3
18
151
40
30. Maharashtra Nagpur
10
25
90
-
16
26
118
-
9
27
102
-
31. Maharashtra Nashik
15
23
78
-
13
27
85
-
12
22
81
-
32. Maharashtra Navi Mumbai
18
42
125
-
19
46
118
-
22
45
105
-

Sl.
No.
State
Cities
2015
2016
2017
SO 2 NO 2 PM 10 PM 2.5 SO 2 NO 2 PM 10 PM 2.5 SO 2 NO 2 PM 10 PM 2.5
33. Bihar Patna
4
41
204
-
4
32
212
-
5
39
156
-
34. Maharashtra PimpriChinchwad
23
52
102
-
32
71
105
-
23
61
82
-
35. Maharashtra Pune
23
62
99
-
28
78
107
-
21
65
102
-
36. Chattisgarh Raipur
13
36
188
-
12
31
148
-
10
27
103
-
37. Gujarat Rajkot
13
19
83
30
13
21
92
32
16
22
106
37
38. Jharkhand Ranchi
19
36
220
-
20
37
196
-
19
37
142
-
39. Jammu & Kashmir Shrinagar
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
40. Gujarat Surat
14
20
89
31
13
22
92
31
16
26
106
36
41. Maharashtra Thane
28
58
117
-
18
60
122
-
18
47
125
-
42. Gujarat Vadodara
14
20
87
33
14
23
92
30
16
23
108
36
43. Uttar Pradesh Varanasi
19
33
145
-
11
32
256
-
10
38
244
-
44. Maharashtra Vasai-virar NA NA
NA
NA
NA NA
NA
NA NA NA NA NA
45. Andhra Pradesh Vijaywada
6
37
110
-
6
44
102
-
6
29
99
-
46. Andhra Pradesh Vishakhapatnam
9
19
61
-
8
18
77
-
9
17
73
-
NB. NA- no monitoring station in the city, @ -monitoring station sanctioned but not yet operational, ‘-‘ data not received, National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Residential, Industrial, Rural and others Areas (Annual average) for SO2 = 50 µg/m3, NO2 = 40 µg/m3, PM10 = 60 µg/m3 & PM2.5 = 40 µg/m3 and SO2 = 20 µg/m3, NO2 = 30 µg/m3, PM10 = 60 µg/m3and PM2.5 = 40 µg/m3 for Ecologically sensitive area. The data furnished in the table for year 2017 is as available on date. 
ANNEXURE II 
Details of Studies Conducted for Identification of Air Pollution Sources

1. Study: Air quality monitoring, emission inventory and source apportionment study for Indian cities
Conducted by: CPCB, ARAI, NEERI, IITs of Kanpur, Mumbai & Chennai and TERI Year of publication: 2010 Cities covered: Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Kanpur, Mumbai and Pune Sources identified:
Source % contribution (PM10)
Vehicles 8.7 – 20.5
Road dust 14.5 – 29.0
Construction 22 – 23.1
Industries 6.3 – 9.3
Garbage burning 10.5 – 24.4
Domestic 2.7 – 9.4
DG sets 6.8 – 12.3

2. Comprehensive Study on Air Pollution and Green House Gases (GHGs) in Delhi Conducted by: IIT KanpurYear of publication: 2016 Cities covered – Delhi

Sources identified -
Source Average for six monitoring locations
% contribution (PM10) % contribution (PM2.5)
Winter Summer Winter Summer
Vehicles 19.7 6.4 25.1 8.5
Secondary particulates 24.6 10.15 29.9 14.9
Biomass burning 16.7 6.8 25.8 12.2
Industries 0.65 1.05 0.8 1.2
Coal and Fly Ash 12.3 37.2 4.8 25.95
Construction material 3.1 4.1 1.5 3.0
Soli and road dust 14.4 26.5 4.3 27.1
Solid Waste burning 8.75 7.75 7.75 7.2              

3. Source Apportionment of PM2.5 & PM10 of Delhi NCR for Identification of Major Sources Conducted by: TERI, ARAI

Year of publication: 2018 Cities covered – Delhi- NCR

Source Average for nine monitoring locations
% contribution (PM10) % contribution (PM2.5)
Winter Summer Winter Summer
Dust and Construction 31 42 15 34
Secondary particulates 23 15 26 17
Vehicles 18 15 23 18
Biomass 14 12 22 15
Industries 10 12 10 11
Others 4 4 4 5
Annexure III 
Details of Payment Released to Various Monitoring Agencies under National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP)


Sl No.

Name of Monitoring Agency
Funds released under NAMP for operation & maintenance in different financial years (Amount in Rs.)
2015-16 2016-17 2017-18
2018-19 till Nov
2018

1.
Andhra Pradesh SPCB
-
-
27555500
-

2.
Arunachal Pradesh SPCB
-
-
4109334 858667

3.
Assam SPCB
-
-
35912000
-

4.
Bihar SPCB
-
-
2216665
-

5.
Chandigarh PCC
-
4113833 3253333
-

6.
Chattisgarh ECB 1526250
-
4465333
-



7.
Dadra & Nagar Haveli PCC and Daman & Diu PCC
-
-
3492333

-

8.
Goa SPCB 7789333
-
24410667
-


9.
Himachal Pradesh SEP & PCB 10128333
-

29309334

-

10.
Jammu & Kashmir SPCB
-
4528000
-

11.
Jharkhand SPCB
-
14893167
-

12.
Karnataka SPCB 6749583
-
21134667
-

13.
Kerala SPCB
-
-
22320000
-

14.
Madhya Pradesh SPCB
-
7984417 13566666
-

15.
Maharashtra SPCB
-
16316919 30544001
-

16.
Meghalaya SPCB 7845833
-
14485333 3541333

17.
Mizoram SPCB 5413333 4253333 7346667 3093333

18.
Nagaland SPCB
-
3658667 3061333 1344000


19.
Odisha SPCB
-
5872500 17080001
-

20.
Punjab SPCB
-
-
20361083
-

21.
Puducherry
-
5110333 3432000
-

22.
Rajasthan SPCB 4218750
-
13434667
-

23.
Sikkim SPCB
-
-
6149334
-

24.
Tamil Nadu SPCB
-
-
16813333
-

25.
Telangana SPCB
-
-
17985000
-

26.
Tripura SPCB
-
-
896000
-

27.
Uttar Pradesh SPCB 7263333
-
31390667
-

28.
Uttarakhand EP&PCB 4085833
-
14544000
-

29.
West Bengal SPCB
-
-
19439917
-

30.
NEERI 13612000 22288000 21600000
-

31.
IIT Kanpur
-
-
8040177
-
Total 6,86,32,581 6,95,98,002 45,77,70,512 88,37,333
Note:- SPCB – State Pollution Control Board, SEP&PCB – State Environment Protection & Pollution Control Board, EP& PCB – Environment Protection & Pollution Control Board, PCC – Pollution Control Committee. NEERI is at present monitoring in 6 cities in 5 different states/Union territories namely Delhi, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

*****


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